Health promotion, through investment and action, has a marked impact on the determinants of health [and can be used] to create the greatest gain for people, to contribute significantly to the reduction of inequities in health, to further human rights, and to build social capital.
Early history[ edit ] The earliest evidence of using occupations as a method of therapy can be found in ancient times.
Later, the Roman Celsus prescribed music, travel, conversation and exercise to his patients. However, by medieval times the use of these interventions with people with mental illness was rare, if not nonexistent. Instead of the use of metal chains and restraints, their institutions used rigorous work and leisure activities in the late 18th century.
This was the Moral Treatment era, developed in Europe during the Age of Enlightenmentwhere the roots of occupational therapy lie.
It re-emerged in the early decades of the 20th century as Occupational Therapy. The Arts and Crafts movement that took place between and also impacted occupational therapy. In the US, a recently industrialized country, the arts and crafts societies emerged against the monotony and lost autonomy of factory work.
Slagle, who was one of the founding members of the National Society for the Promotion of Occupational Therapy NSPOTproposed habit training as a primary occupational therapy model of treatment.
Although habit training was initially developed to treat individuals with mental health conditions, its basic tenets are apparent in modern treatment models that are utilized across a wide scope of client populations.
In Slagle opened the first occupational therapy training program, the Henry B. Slagle went on to serve as both AOTA president and secretary. Toy making in psychiatric hospital.
World War 1 era. The health profession of occupational therapy was conceived in the early s as a reflection of the Progressive Era. Other titles such as "work-cure","ergo therapy" ergo being the greek root for "work"and "creative occupations" were discussed as substitutes, but ultimately, none possessed the broad meaning that the practice of occupational therapy demanded in order to capture the many forms of treatment that existed from the beginning.
The emergence of occupational therapy challenged the views of mainstream scientific medicine. Instead of focusing purely on the medical modeloccupational therapists argued that a complex combination of social, economic, and biological reasons cause dysfunction.
Between andthe founders defined the realm of practice and developed supporting theories. By the early s, AOTA had established educational guidelines and accreditation procedures. The entry of the United States into World War I was also a crucial event in the history of the profession.
Up until this time, occupational therapy had been concerned primarily with the treatment of people with mental illness. The military enlisted the assistance of NSPOT to recruit and train over 1, "reconstruction aides" to help with the rehabilitation of those wounded in the war.
With entry into World War II and the ensuing skyrocketing demand for occupational therapists to treat those injured in the war, the field of occupational therapy underwent dramatic growth and change.
Occupational therapists needed to be skilled not only in the use of constructive activities such as crafts, but also increasingly in the use of activities of daily living. Emphasis shifted from the altruistic war-time mentality to the financial, professional, and personal satisfaction that comes with being a therapist.
To make the profession more appealing, practice was standardized, as was the curriculum. Entry and exit criteria were established, and the American Occupational Therapy Association advocated for steady employment, decent wages, and fair working conditions.
Via these methods, occupational therapy sought and obtained medical legitimacy in the s. Eleanor Clarke Slagle proposed a month course of training inand these standards were adopted in Educational standards were expanded to a total training time of months in to place the requirements for professional entry on par with those of other professions.
The first textbook was published in United States for occupational therapy inedited by Helen S. Willard and Clare S. The profession continued to grow and redefine itself in the s.
The profession also began to assess the potential for the use of trained assistants in the attempt to address the ongoing shortage of qualified therapists, and educational standards for occupational therapy assistants were implemented in New developments in the areas of neurobehavioral research led to new conceptualizations and new treatment approaches, possibly the most groundbreaking being the sensory integrative approach developed by A.
Occupational sciencethe study of occupation, was created in as a tool for providing evidence-based research to support and advance the practice of occupational therapy, as well as offer a basic science to study topics surrounding "occupation".
Furthermore, occupational therapy practitioners have been striving personally and professionally toward concepts of occupational justice and other human rights issues that have both local and global impacts.
Philosophical underpinnings[ edit ] The philosophy of occupational therapy has evolved over the history of the profession. The philosophy articulated by the founders owed much to the ideals of romanticism pragmatism  and humanismwhich are collectively considered the fundamental ideologies of the past century.
At the time, Dr. Meyer was one of the leading psychiatrists in the United States and head of the new psychiatry department and Phipps Clinic at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland.
From his statements came some of the basic assumptions of occupational therapy, which include:a theoretical framework on intersectoral practice or resolved by schools seem to be health services 2, and they are expected to be solved from the med - ical standpoint.
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A mental health history including asylum and community care periods, with links to Andrew Roberts' book on the Lunacy Commission and other mental health writings, and the asylums index and word rutadeltambor.comd on England and Wales, it reaches out to the rest of the world with links to the general timeline of science and society, America timeline, crime timeline, and the (embryo) sunrise.
Health education: theoretical concepts, effective strategies and core competencies Preface Health education as a tool for health promotion is critical for improving the health of populations.
Occupational therapy (OT) is the use of assessment and intervention to develop, recover, or maintain the meaningful activities, or occupations, of individuals, groups, or rutadeltambor.com is an allied health profession performed by occupational rutadeltambor.com often work with people with mental health problems, disabilities, injuries, or impairments.
The American Occupational Therapy Association. The kinds of health promotion programmes that students and schools implement reflect the health education models on which they are based.
There are three main categories in which health education models can be broadly placed.