Theories of Cognitive Development There exist several theories of cognitive development, and no one theory has yet to explain all of the aspects of cognitive development.
Sensorimotor stage[ edit ] The first stage in Piaget's stages of cognitive development is the sensorimotor stage. This stage lasts from birth to two years old. During this stage, behaviors lack a sense of thought and logic.
Behaviors gradually move from acting upon inherited reflexes to interacting with the environment with a goal in mind and being able to represent the external world at the end.
The sensorimotor stage has been broken down into six sub stages that explain the gradual development of infants from birth to age 2. Once the child gains the ability to mentally represent reality, the child begins the transition to the preoperational stage of development. Examples of these reflexes include grasping and sucking.
For example, a child's finger comes in contact with the mouth and the child starts sucking on it. If the sensation is pleasurable to the child, then the child will attempt to recreate the behavior.
Schemes are groups of similar actions or thoughts that are used repeatedly in response to the environment. For example, an infant may assimilate a new teddy bear into their putting things in their mouth scheme and use their reflexes to make the teddy bear go into their mouth.
For example, an infant may have to open his or her mouth wider than usual to accommodate the teddy bear's paw. For example, a child accidentally hits the mobile above the crib and likes to watch it spin. When it stops the child begins to grab at the object to make it spin again.
In this stage, habits are formed from general schemes that the infant has created but there is not yet, from the child's point of view, any differentiation between means and ends.
Once there is another distraction say the parent walks in the room the baby will no longer focus on the mobile. Toys should be given to infants that respond to a child's actions to help foster their investigative instincts. They begin to understand that one action can cause a reaction.
The baby wants a rattle but the blanket is in the way. The baby moves the blanket to get the rattle. Now that the infant can understand that the object still exists, they can differentiate between the object, and the experience of the object.
According to psychologist David Elkind, "An internal representation of the absent object is the earliest manifestation of the symbolic function which develops gradually during the second year of life whose activities dominate the next stage of mental growth. For example a baby drums on a pot with a wooden spoon, then drums on the floor, then on the table.
For example, a child is mixing ingredients together but doesn't have a spoon so they pretend to use one or use another object the replace the spoon. The end product is established after the infant has pursued for the appropriate means.
The means are formed from the schemes that are known by the child. Preoperational stage[ edit ] Lasts from 2 years of age until 6 or 7.
It can be characterized in two somewhat different ways. In his early work, before he had developed his structuralist theory of cognition, Piaget described the child's thought during this period as being governed by principles such as egocentrism, animism and other similar constructs.
Egocentrism is when a child can only see a certain situation his or her own way. One can not comprehend that other people have other views and perceptions of scenarios. Animism is when an individual gives a lifeless object human-like qualities. An individual usually believes that this object has human emotions, thoughts and intentions.
Once he had proposed his structuralist theory, Piaget characterized the preoperational child as lacking the cognitive structures possessed by the concrete operational child.
The absence of these structures explains, in part, the behaviors Piaget had previously described as egocentric and animistic, for example, an inability to comprehend that another individual may have different emotional responses to similar experiences. Concrete operational stage[ edit ] Lasts from 6 or 7 years until about 12 or During this stage, the child's cognitive structures can be characterized by reality.
Piaget argues that the same general principles can be discerned in a wide range of behaviors. One of the best-known achievements of this stage is that of conservation. A preoperational child will typically judge the taller, thinner glass to contain more, while a concrete operational child will judge the amounts still to be the same.
The ability to reason in this way reflects the development of a principle of conservation. The need for concrete examples is no longer necessary because abstract thinking can be used instead.
In this stage adolescents are also able to view themselves in the future and can picture the ideal life they would like to pursue. Some theorists believe the formal operational stage can be divided into two sub-categories:Cognitive psychology is the study of mental processes such as "attention, language use, memory, perception, problem solving, creativity, and thinking".
Much of the work derived from cognitive psychology has been integrated into various other modern disciplines such as Cognitive Science and of psychological study, including educational psychology, social psychology, personality psychology.
Piaget's 4 Stages of Cognitive Development. Piaget proposed four stages of cognitive development which reflect the increasing sophistication of children's thought: 1. Sensorimotor stage (birth to age 2) 2.
Pre-operational stage (from age 2 to age 7) 3. Concrete operational stage (from age 7 to age 11) 4.
Social cognitive neuroscience. The advances described above led to the development in the early years of the 21st century of a new, highly popular field: social cognitive neuroscience (SCN).
Cognitive psychology became of great importance in the mids. Several factors were important in this: Disatisfaction with the behaviorist approach in its simple emphasis on external behavior rather than internal processes.
The development of better experimental methods. Comparison between human and computer processing of information. The Theory of Cognitive Development, is a comprehensive theory about the nature and development of human intelligence first developed by Jean rutadeltambor.com is primarily known as a developmental stage theory, but in fact, it deals with the nature of knowledge itself and how humans come gradually to acquire it, construct it, and use rutadeltambor.comer; Piaget claims the idea that cognitive development .
Jul 13, · Cognitive psychology is the scientific investigation of human cognition, that is, all our mental abilities – perceiving, learning, remembering, thinking, reasoning, and understanding.
The term “cognition” stems from the Latin word “ cognoscere” or "to know".
Fundamentally, cognitive psychology studies how people acquire and apply .