Report of a Workshop. The National Academies Press.
The educational attainment of the children's mother. The socio-economic level of the children's home. In-home parental promotion of preschoolers' skills acquisitions, such as reading and numbers, game playing, and the creation of a stable, stimulating environment.
Parental aspirations expectations for children's achievement, and parents' own enthusiasm for, and attitudes toward education and learning. In-home parent-child discussions, valuing of children's opinions and conversation, and social interaction, i.
Parental supplementation of children's education with enrichment activities, such as libraries and museums, sports, music, travel, and family hobbies. Parental encouragement of older children's self-reliance and autonomy. Homework in elementary school. Routine parental involvement and help with homework.
Extended parent-teacher contact beyond the minimum necessary communication of notices, events, grades, and so forth.
Parental volunteering in and presence at the child's school and children's in-school activities. As an independent variable and not merely appearing in the research as a correlate of parental socioeconomic status or family culture and interest in education, this does nothing for children.
Parental involvement with and participation in school-related organizations, such as PTA. Same comment as 4, above.
This is not the kind of "parental involvement" that matters. Verbally encouraging a child to "do well in school," and giving rewards or punishment based on grades. Shorting sleep time to study -- or for other recurring "enrichment" activities such as child custody dinner-visitation activities during the school week.
Child Development Perspectives, 5: Parenting programs to enhance parenting skills. Notwithstanding promotional hype, parenting skills programs have not been shown to result in any clear academic achievement or enhanced outcomes for children.
However, to the extent there is some small success in situations in which these programs address families with serious problems, such as adolescent behavior issues, behavior-based programs work and relationship-oriented programs don't. Children's educational achievement is not negatively impacted by a parent's lack of fluency in the English language.
Single motherhood, while it tends to reduce mothers' participation with children's schools and with their teachers an "involvement" of little or no benefit anyway but bearing on educators' and the public's perceptionsdoes not reduce maternal in-home enhancement of children's education -- where "parental involvement" counts.
The research on fatherlessness universally and often deliberately confounds "father presence or absence" with its frequent correlates in the "What Works" category, above. Dean Keith Simonton, Scientific Genius: A Psychology of Science. Cambridge University Press "Exceptionally achieving individuals in virtually every human endeavor are more likely to have lost a parent Roe also mentioned Bell's work on illustrious mathematicians, in which around one-quarter had lost a parent before age 10 and nearly one-third before age Maternal depression has been found to reduce mother's in-home educational involvement.
To some extent, children mediate their parents' involvement directly with schools and school activities, and parents also are more likely to become involved because of the success of the children.
Television and video game playing appear to be developmental negatives, especially for young children. Children, especially young children, also need fresh air, sunshine, nature, exercise, and plenty of unstructured time outside just to play. School systems have a vested interest in broadly defining "parental involvement" to include parental participation in, and donation of time and money to, children's schools.
Be careful in reading the research. This kind of "parental involvement" in education is not a factor in promoting one's own children's achievement, and where it appears to be, that is because it is actually a reflection that parents with more money, time, and interest in education tend also to be more active in children's schools, and parents who already have achieving children tend to become more interested for that reason in children's in-school activities.
Household and family disruption, lack of after-school and study-time routines, irregular sleep habitsand children's not having their own regular, comfortable, quiet places to read, work and think are negatives that will detract from achievement however, correcting for these negatives in the absence of important "what works" factors, above, will have negligible positive effect on their own toward boosting long-term achievement.
Boys are falling behind and "in crisis" in our schools. Trueargues Leonard Sax in Boys Adrift: Sex of parent and children's well-being in single-parent households.socioeconomic level.
It was researched whether perceived maternal styles differ depending on SES or not. Mothers from upper socioeconomic level reflect a democratic parental style. Mothers from all socioeconomic levels emphasise that there are rules for children to obey but only mothers in upper socioeconomic level make rules together with children.
The Consequences of Maternal Morbidity and Maternal Mortality assesses the scientific knowledge about the consequences of maternal morbidity and mortality and discusses key findings from recent research.
Although the existing research on this topic is scarce, the report drew on similar literature on the consequences of adult disease and death, especially the growing literature on the socioeconomic . Researchon the influence of family social economic status, that is, parents’ occupational status, income, and education, has found that it does affect edu- cation and occupational choices of .
Economic Status and the Maternal Figures in No Matter What and "A Mother" From as early as the days of ancient Rome and Greece your economic status and place in society determined what kind of life you and in turn, your family would lead.
Numerous studies show that after controlling for education and socioeconomic status, African American women remain at higher risk for maternal and infant mortality.
May 09, · Maternal socioeconomic status (SES) is an important determinant of inequity in maternal and fetal health. We sought to determine the extent to which associations between adverse birth outcomes and SES can be identified using individual-level measures (maternal level of education) and community-level measures (neighbourhood income).