Establishment of Latin American States Author:
Coercion, Capital and European States addresses the fundamental question of how the concentration of authority occurred in history and why it culminated in the triumph of the national state over other state forms such as city-states and systems of loosely articulated regional empires.
Indeed, for Tilly, the nation-state and the national state were very different things: Most states have been non-national: The term national states, regrettably, does not necessarily mean nation-state, where people share strong linguistic, religious, and symbolic identity.
Great Britain, Germany, and France, --quintessential national states—certainly have never met the test. Is the national state a prerequisite for the nation-state? What would happen if states in other regions of the world would, from their beginnings, try to construct themselves as 2 nation-states rather than as national states?
Ex colonies of European powers are promising places to look for answers. In the rest of this paper, I will concentrate on these specific questions. I will do so by a brief contrast and compare exercise between Latin America, Europe, and the U.
Brief references to other new nations will also be made. I argue that the characteristics of the Latin American process of nation building ask for a fresh reconsideration of the concepts of nation-state and national state, as Tilly and others defined it. In these Spanish ex-colonies states were weaker Centeno, ; Lopez- Alves, Yet the move toward constructing a nation-state was faster and steady.
As Tilly suggested, national states took a long time to build and were not, historically, frequent occurrences. As he also suggested, nation states were even more rare. This makes a comparison with the Latin American cases the more interesting.
Other actors, in addition to the nation state, contributed of course to the conceptualization and imagining of the nation subaltern identities, grass roots organizations, immigrants, Creole interest groups, etc.
Yet there is consensus that in Latin America the state was the most important nation builder. States built nations rather than the other way round, e. In Spanish America, a variety of desired and actual nations emerged. What distinguished the region was that, in most cases, the process of constructing the nation and imposing some conceptualization of it on the popular imaginary included the future of the nation.
Similar to the U. Conceptualizing, planning, and defining the nation, therefore, was an intrinsic part of the reason why nation-states rather than national states emerged in Latin America. In Europe, things were different.
Let us go back to Tilly: Unlike Europe, there were no serious attempts on the part of indigenous peoples or powerful immigrant lobbies to create parallel projects of nation building. Only today a number of indigenous communities defined as nations are successfully claiming that right and, in most cases, they do so under the observance and guidance of the central state Ecuador, Bolivia, Mexico.
On their part, stateless nations can also aspire to have their own states, i. In Europe, the process of nation-state building gained momentum after WWI Tilly believed that it was only after WWIIin a complex fashion in which states crafted their own nations but nations also created their own states.
These considerations call for yet another reading of modernity. Did modernity really mean the consolidation of the one state-one nation formula, as opposed to the one state-many nations formula, as in Empires, national states, or strong larger states able to subdue different nations?
Tilly believed that it did not.Ye are of your father the devil, and the lusts of your father ye will do. He was a murderer from the beginning, and abode not in the truth because there is no truth in him. Project Gutenberg's The Black Experience in America, by Norman Coombs This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever.
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Martin’s Press, Tor Books, Farrar, Straus & Giroux, Henry Holt, Picador, Flatiron Books, Celadon Books, and Macmillan Audio. II) Tilly and Nation States in Europe and Latin America In Latin America, a major goal was to create a more homogeneous and whiter nation ruled by one state. In Europe, despite efforts in the same direction, the outcome was a mix of empires, national states, and some –according to Tilly— nation states like Great Britain, Germany, and France that most times, however, failed to meet the nation state “test”.
Emergence of nation states in the nineteenth century Latin America share many similarities with the emeregnce of such in the twentieth century Middle East such as formation of the governments.