For campaign consultants, the success of the Obama campaign and his utilization of new media technology have posed new conundrums. As such, some candidates have asked consultants to move toward new media based campaigns—in many cases an implausible request. In this article, the author examines two main questions: By using three case studies, the author highlights different variables that potentially impact the ultimate success of local candidates relying on technology-based campaigns.
Background[ edit ] Avocourt, one of the many destroyed French villages where reconstruction would be funded by reparations Inthe First World War broke out.
In part, this speech called for Germany to withdraw from the territory it had occupied and for the formation of a League of Nations. Furthermore, in during the German retreat, German troops devastated France's most industrialized region in the north-east Nord-Pas de Calais Mining Basin.
Extensive looting took place as German forces removed whatever material they could use and destroyed the rest. Hundreds of mines were destroyed along with railways, bridges, and entire villages.
Prime Minister of France Georges Clemenceau was determined, for these reasons, that any just peace required Germany to pay reparations for the damage it had caused. Clemenceau viewed reparations as a way of weakening Germany to ensure it could never threaten France again.
He also argued that reparations should include war pensions for disabled veterans and allowances for war widows, which would reserve a larger share of the reparations for the British Empire. The same article, with the signatory's name changed, was also included in the treaties signed by Germany's allies.
In FebruaryForeign Minister Count Ulrich von Brockdorff-Rantzau informed the Weimar National Assembly that Germany would have to pay reparations for the devastation caused by the war, but would not pay for actual war costs.
At this meeting Brockdorff-Rantzau stated, "We know the intensity of the hatred which meets us, and we have heard the victors' passionate demand that as the vanquished we shall be made to pay, and as the guilty we shall be punished". However, he proceeded to deny that Germany was solely responsible for the war.
Instead of stating " Germany accepts responsibility of Germany and her allies causing all the loss and damage The Treaty of Versailles stated that a Reparation Commission would be established in This commission would consider the resources available to Germany and her capacity to pay, provide the German Government with an opportunity to be heard on the subject, and decide on the final reparation figure that Germany would be required to pay.
The money would be used to pay Allied occupation costs and to buy food and raw materials for Germany. Therefore, the treaty required Bulgaria to pay a sum equivalent of 2. This would not be credited towards the reparation figure.
These shipments would not be credited against Bulgaria's reparation sum. They would, however, be credited for these goods.
The Germans countered with an offer of 30 billion. Furthermore, "Allied experts knew that Germany could not pay billion marks and that the other Central Powers could pay little.
Thus, the A and B Bonds, which were genuine, represented the actual Allied assessment of German capacity to pay. Commodities paid in kind included coal, timber, chemical dyes, pharmaceuticals, livestock, agricultural machines, construction materials, and factory machinery.
The gold value of these would be deducted from what Germany was required to pay. Germany's assistance with the restoration of the university library of Louvainwhich was destroyed by the Germans on 25 Augustwas also credited towards the sum, as were some of the territorial changes the treaty imposed upon Germany.
The German Government was to issue bonds at five per cent interest and set up a sinking fund of one per cent to support the payment of reparations. Inthe Bulgarian reparation obligation was abandoned following the Lausanne Conference.
When the Treaty of Lausanne was signed inTurkish reparations were "eliminated altogether".Internet Argument Analysis: Believing and Doubting Assignment; Barriers to Critical Thinking. debilitating fear and uncertainty reliance on main stream television, newspapers and other media for information the effects of television and electronic media on memory, cognition and brain function.
medical use of marijuana for certain debilitating conditions—but also clear that the medical use would be subject to extensive regulation of patients, physicians, caregivers, dispensaries, and the marijuana itself, with a focus on health and safety.
is a concern in the first two models, in the fixed effects model it is debilitating. A rule of thumb for major collinearity problems is a VIF of 10 or more (Hamilton , ).
The analysis involved a pooled time series analysis with state and year fixed effects. State fixed effects were captured by adding 50 dummy variables to the regression equation—one for each state plus the District of Columbia (−1). The loss of this infrastructure would result in debilitating consequences to the safety and security of the United States.
A Case Study Analysis.” Homeland Security Affairs 12, Essay 3 (May ). West Virginia also provides an example that is contrary to the argument that the loss of a facility serving as sole provider of an.
Clausewitzian Friction an dFuture War REVISED EDITION BARRY D. WATTS Clausewitzian Friction and Future War WA TTS Analysis and Evaluation in the Department of Defense. Previously, he directed the only underscores my central argument: friction is unlikely to be elimi-.