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Conclusions The strongest conclusion that can be drawn from the reviewed research is that the structure of an AAP will influence reactions to it.
Attitudes are inversely related to the weighting of demographic status, and evaluations of selection procedures are directly related to the superiority of the chosen candidate. The effect of AAP structure on Affirmative action essay conclusion is mediated, at least in part, by judgments of fairness and self-interest, and fairness ratings are highly correlated with attitudes.
There is slightly more support for AAPs directed at women and people with disabilities than for AAPs directed at racial minorities, although this effect is moderated by respondent demographic status in a manner consistent with self-interest. Minorities and women are more supportive of affirmative action than are White males, but other demographic variables e.
Attitudes toward race-based affirmative action are inversely related to racism, and limited research suggests that attitudes toward gender-based affirmative action are inversely related to sexism. It has been suggested that attitudes will be associated with judgments of relative deprivation of the target group and the respondent's own group, but valid research is limited.
Some limited evidence suggests that there is great variability in what the public thinks AAPs entail, and that public opinions are flexible. Opinions can be changed by providing the respondent with information about details of the AAP and by some justification of the use of affirmative action.
Support for affirmative action is stronger if the respondent has personally experienced discrimination.
In addition, support for affirmative action is higher if the respondent believes or is told that the target group has suffered discrimination. There is evidence, however, that many Whites believe discrimination is no longer a problem, and that Blacks themselves are to blame for the Black-White income gap.
This belief is consistent with a structuralist ideology, and attitudes are inversely related to acceptance of a conservative, structuralist political ideology. Individuals who are identified as being selected under an AAP are perceived as less competent, by themselves and by others, unless information is provided that clearly and unambiguously demonstrates their competence.
Conclusions regarding self-stigmatization must be qualified because almost all the relevant research has been based on reactions of White women to gender-based selection procedures; it is not known whether the results will generalize to ethnic minorities selected in the context of race-based procedures.
There is no empirical research on effects of affirmative action on relations among groups, but theoretical work predicts that effects will be negative unless the AAP is positively evaluated by all involved parties.
Our limited review of the economic literature found that implementation of affirmative action is associated with improved employment conditions of women and racial minorities, although the improvements have been relatively small and inconsistent across subgroups.
Other work revealed no apparent effects of affirmative action on organizational effectiveness. In addition, research has found that formal charges of discrimination led to a decrease in stock prices, and public recognition of affirmative action excellence led to a temporary increase in stock prices.
In short, there is evidence that affirmative action helps target group members, but no empirical evidence that it harms organizations. Limitations and Needed Research The conclusions drawn above must be tempered by limitations in the research. Much of the research on target and non-target group members' reactions has used experiments, which necessarily simplify matters.
This has the advantage of increasing internal validity, but does not permit exploration of the complexity of affirmative action attitudes.
Research using surveys, in contrast, is more likely to permit such exploration. Survey research, however, lacks internal validity. Indeed, all research on individual difference variables e.
Ideally, every question should be addressed with multiple research strategies, and the weaknesses of one strategy will be balanced by the strengths of others McGrath, Unfortunately, as we have mentioned throughout this review, many questions have been addressed in limited ways.
For example, research on self-stigmatization has been limited to reactions of women to gender-based selection in mainly laboratory experiments.Essay about Affirmative Action and Higher Education Admissions - Introduction Known as one of the biggest obstacles in higher education to date would arguably be the use of affirmative action within the higher education admission process for both private and public institutions (Kaplin & Lee, ; Wang & Shulruf, ).
Expert Assistance To Affirmative Action Essay. Equality, equal opportunity, religious tolerance and diversity have been buzz words for quite some time now. Affirmative actions are the positive steps taken to embrace the women, ethnic minorities, and other marginalized sections of the society in business and educational institution.
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In conclusion, previous research provides numerous questions and hypotheses about affirmative action attitudes and about how affirmative action affects target group members and non-members. Some conclusions can now be drawn with confidence, but much more research is needed before we can claim to thoroughly understand the psychological and.
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In conclusion, previous research provides numerous questions and hypotheses about affirmative action attitudes and about how affirmative action affects target group members and non-members.
Some conclusions can now be drawn with confidence, but much more research is needed before we can claim to thoroughly understand the .